Web21/10/ · A footnote in Microsoft's submission to the UK's Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) has let slip the reason behind Call of Duty's absence from the Xbox Game Pass library: Sony and Web26/10/ · Key Findings. California voters have now received their mail ballots, and the November 8 general election has entered its final stage. Amid rising prices and economic uncertainty—as well as deep partisan divisions over social and political issues—Californians are processing a great deal of information to help them choose state constitutional Web12/10/ · Microsoft pleaded for its deal on the day of the Phase 2 decision last month, but now the gloves are well and truly off. Microsoft describes the CMA’s concerns as “misplaced” and says that Web20/10/ · That means the impact could spread far beyond the agency’s payday lending rule. "The holding will call into question many other regulations that protect consumers with respect to credit cards, bank accounts, mortgage loans, debt collection, credit reports, and identity theft," tweeted Chris Peterson, a former enforcement attorney at the CFPB who WebXu hướng tính dục là khái niệm chỉ sự hấp dẫn về tình cảm hoặc tình dục (hoặc cả hai) một cách lâu dài đối với những người thuộc giới tính khác, thuộc cùng giới tính, thuộc cả hai giới tính hoặc nhiều hơn một giới. Những sự hấp dẫn này thường được bao gồm những dạng là dị tính luyến ái ... read more
A wide partisan divide exists: most Democrats and independents say their financial situation is about the same as a year ago, while solid majorities of Republicans say they are worse off.
Regionally, about half in the San Francisco Bay Area and Los Angeles say they are about the same, while half in the Central Valley say they are worse off; residents elsewhere are divided between being worse off and the same.
The shares saying they are worse off decline as educational attainment increases. Strong majorities across partisan groups feel negatively, but Republicans and independents are much more likely than Democrats to say the economy is in poor shape. Today, majorities across partisan, demographic, and regional groups say they are following news about the gubernatorial election either very or fairly closely.
In the upcoming November 8 election, there will be seven state propositions for voters. Due to time constraints, our survey only asked about three ballot measures: Propositions 26, 27, and For each, we read the proposition number, ballot, and ballot label.
Two of the state ballot measures were also included in the September survey Propositions 27 and 30 , while Proposition 26 was not. This measure would allow in-person sports betting at racetracks and tribal casinos, requiring that racetracks and casinos offering sports betting make certain payments to the state to support state regulatory costs. It also allows roulette and dice games at tribal casinos and adds a new way to enforce certain state gambling laws.
Fewer than half of likely voters say the outcome of each of these state propositions is very important to them. Today, 21 percent of likely voters say the outcome of Prop 26 is very important, 31 percent say the outcome of Prop 27 is very important, and 42 percent say the outcome of Prop 30 is very important. Today, when it comes to the importance of the outcome of Prop 26, one in four or fewer across partisan groups say it is very important to them.
About one in three across partisan groups say the outcome of Prop 27 is very important to them. Fewer than half across partisan groups say the outcome of Prop 30 is very important to them. When asked how they would vote if the election for the US House of Representatives were held today, 56 percent of likely voters say they would vote for or lean toward the Democratic candidate, while 39 percent would vote for or lean toward the Republican candidate.
Democratic candidates are preferred by a point margin in Democratic-held districts, while Republican candidates are preferred by a point margin in Republican-held districts. Abortion is another prominent issue in this election. When asked about the importance of abortion rights, 61 percent of likely voters say the issue is very important in determining their vote for Congress and another 20 percent say it is somewhat important; just 17 percent say it is not too or not at all important.
With the controlling party in Congress hanging in the balance, 51 percent of likely voters say they are extremely or very enthusiastic about voting for Congress this year; another 29 percent are somewhat enthusiastic while 19 percent are either not too or not at all enthusiastic. Today, Democrats and Republicans have about equal levels of enthusiasm, while independents are much less likely to be extremely or very enthusiastic. As Californians prepare to vote in the upcoming midterm election, fewer than half of adults and likely voters are satisfied with the way democracy is working in the United States—and few are very satisfied.
Satisfaction was higher in our February survey when 53 percent of adults and 48 percent of likely voters were satisfied with democracy in America. Today, half of Democrats and about four in ten independents are satisfied, compared to about one in five Republicans. Notably, four in ten Republicans are not at all satisfied. In addition to the lack of satisfaction with the way democracy is working, Californians are divided about whether Americans of different political positions can still come together and work out their differences.
Forty-nine percent are optimistic, while 46 percent are pessimistic. Today, in a rare moment of bipartisan agreement, about four in ten Democrats, Republicans, and independents are optimistic that Americans of different political views will be able to come together.
Notably, in , half or more across parties, regions, and demographic groups were optimistic. Today, about eight in ten Democrats—compared to about half of independents and about one in ten Republicans—approve of Governor Newsom.
Across demographic groups, about half or more approve of how Governor Newsom is handling his job. Approval of Congress among adults has been below 40 percent for all of after seeing a brief run above 40 percent for all of Democrats are far more likely than Republicans to approve of Congress. Fewer than half across regions and demographic groups approve of Congress. Approval in March was at 44 percent for adults and 39 percent for likely voters.
Across demographic groups, about half or more approve among women, younger adults, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos. Views are similar across education and income groups, with just fewer than half approving. Approval in March was at 41 percent for adults and 36 percent for likely voters.
Across regions, approval reaches a majority only in the San Francisco Bay Area. Across demographic groups, approval reaches a majority only among African Americans. This map highlights the five geographic regions for which we present results; these regions account for approximately 90 percent of the state population. Residents of other geographic areas in gray are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes for these less-populous areas are not large enough to report separately.
The PPIC Statewide Survey is directed by Mark Baldassare, president and CEO and survey director at the Public Policy Institute of California.
Coauthors of this report include survey analyst Deja Thomas, who was the project manager for this survey; associate survey director and research fellow Dean Bonner; and survey analyst Rachel Lawler. The Californians and Their Government survey is supported with funding from the Arjay and Frances F. Findings in this report are based on a survey of 1, California adult residents, including 1, interviewed on cell phones and interviewed on landline telephones.
The sample included respondents reached by calling back respondents who had previously completed an interview in PPIC Statewide Surveys in the last six months. Interviews took an average of 19 minutes to complete. Interviewing took place on weekend days and weekday nights from October 14—23, Cell phone interviews were conducted using a computer-generated random sample of cell phone numbers.
Additionally, we utilized a registration-based sample RBS of cell phone numbers for adults who are registered to vote in California. All cell phone numbers with California area codes were eligible for selection. After a cell phone user was reached, the interviewer verified that this person was age 18 or older, a resident of California, and in a safe place to continue the survey e. Cell phone respondents were offered a small reimbursement to help defray the cost of the call. Cell phone interviews were conducted with adults who have cell phone service only and with those who have both cell phone and landline service in the household.
Landline interviews were conducted using a computer-generated random sample of telephone numbers that ensured that both listed and unlisted numbers were called. Additionally, we utilized a registration-based sample RBS of landline phone numbers for adults who are registered to vote in California.
All landline telephone exchanges in California were eligible for selection. For both cell phones and landlines, telephone numbers were called as many as eight times. When no contact with an individual was made, calls to a number were limited to six. Also, to increase our ability to interview Asian American adults, we made up to three additional calls to phone numbers estimated by Survey Sampling International as likely to be associated with Asian American individuals.
Accent on Languages, Inc. The survey sample was closely comparable to the ACS figures. To estimate landline and cell phone service in California, Abt Associates used state-level estimates released by the National Center for Health Statistics—which used data from the National Health Interview Survey NHIS and the ACS.
The estimates for California were then compared against landline and cell phone service reported in this survey. We also used voter registration data from the California Secretary of State to compare the party registration of registered voters in our sample to party registration statewide.
The sampling error, taking design effects from weighting into consideration, is ±3. This means that 95 times out of , the results will be within 3.
The sampling error for unweighted subgroups is larger: for the 1, registered voters, the sampling error is ±4. For the sampling errors of additional subgroups, please see the table at the end of this section. Sampling error is only one type of error to which surveys are subject. Results may also be affected by factors such as question wording, question order, and survey timing.
We present results for five geographic regions, accounting for approximately 90 percent of the state population. Residents of other geographic areas are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes for these less-populous areas are not large enough to report separately.
We also present results for congressional districts currently held by Democrats or Republicans, based on residential zip code and party of the local US House member. We compare the opinions of those who report they are registered Democrats, registered Republicans, and no party preference or decline-to-state or independent voters; the results for those who say they are registered to vote in other parties are not large enough for separate analysis. mature old sex free sex stories.
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The Global Default Thermodynamic System window appears. Figure Global Default Thermodynamic System Window ¾ Complete the window. You can set the snap and move tolerances, zoom and pan increments, the PFD palette icon, icon fill, unit snapping, and delete confirmation. The defaults, shown below in Figure , are appropriate for most scenarios and you may never need to make changes in this window.
You may want to change this default setting. To turn delete confirmation off: ¾ Within the General Drawing Defaults window, uncheck Confirm Deletes to turn the option off. Setting Global Flowsheet Tolerances Use this option to identify the acceptable margins of error and criteria for satisfying certain numerical methods. Some flowsheet tolerances, such as the tolerance for flash calculations, are internal and are not user-definable. The default flowsheet tolerances are satisfactory for most problems.
The PFD palette shows icons for each unit operation that you can select to place on the flowsheet. The PFD palette appears automatically when you open a new or existing file, or when you import a keyword file. By default, units you add to or move in the PFD main window snap to an invisible grid. You can turn grid snapping off. To turn grid snapping off: ¾ Choose Drawing Defaults from the Options menu.
The disappears from the Unit Snapping check box. To place more than one unit at a time: ¾ Select the desired unit from the floating PFD palette.
Canceling Unit Placement To cancel unit placement: ¾ Click the right mouse button. Deleting a Unit To delete a unit already on the flowsheet: ¾ Click on the unit icon you want to delete.
You can change the label for a unit by modifying the label on its data entry window. By default, the label consists of a character and a one-digit auto incrementing number. To relabel a specific unit: ¾ Double-click on the unit you want to rename. The data entry window for that unit appears. Drawing Streams Streams mode is used to lay out the connections between units and feed and product streams.
The product ports for each unit automatically appear when you depress the Streams button. Required product ports are red, while optional product ports are green. For some unit operations, an entire side of the unit will be red or green denoting multiple connections to that port. To use the Streams mode or display ports: ¾ Select Streams on the PFD palette.
To display feed ports, depress the left mouse button while the Streams button is depressed. To draw a feed stream: ¾ Click on an unoccupied area of the PFD main window. To draw a product stream: ¾ Click the left mouse button on a product port. Drawing a Connection To connect units: ¾ Click the left mouse button on a port to anchor or start a stream. The ports and port colors for some unit operations change depending on the port you selected.
Changing a Connection To change a connection: ¾ Click the end port of the stream and hold down the mouse button. You may open another viewport window of the same simulation and move to the end port you wish to view. Alternately, you can also use the scroll bars, the Pan View window, Search for Unit, or Search for Stream tool to display the end port. By default, the label consists of an S followed by an auto incrementing number.
You can change the label for a stream by changing the label on its data entry window. To relabel a stream: ¾ Double-click on the stream you want to relabel. The Stream Data window appears. This stream will now show the new label; other streams retain the original labeling scheme. Moving Streams You can change the route of the stream between two connections whenever you wish. To move a stream: ¾ Click on the end of the stream you want to move. When you move a stream or a unit operation icon, this calculation may no longer be valid.
You can recalculate an unobstructed, orthogonal path for selected streams. The Unit List identifies each unit by name. The Stream List identifies each stream by name.
The Search for Unit dialog box appears, showing the names of all units currently placed on the flowsheet diagram. The Search for Stream dialog box appears, showing the names of all streams currently placed on the flow diagram. The stream appears at the center of the PFD. Note: These search tools are only available on the toolbar if the Standard Toolbar is active. Each template uses a different algorithm for calculating the position of unit operations and stream connections. You do not have to reexecute a simulation in order to change its layout.
A cascading menu ¾ Choose one of the following layouts: appears to the right of the View menu. These objects are: ¾ Text ¾ Line ¾ Polygon ¾ Rectangle ¾ Ellipse ¾ Page Entering Text You use the text option to include notes on your drawing.
Once you choose text mode, you remain in text mode as long as you continue to choose the OK or Cancel button on the Draw Text window; choosing Cancel exits text mode. Figure Draw Text Window ¾ Enter the text you want to appear on the diagram. The default is 50 pixels. Drawing Lines You use the line option to add connected lines to the diagram without interfering with simulation data. To draw a line: ¾ Choose Line from the Draw menu.
To draw orthogonal connected lines: ¾ Choose Line from the Draw menu. To draw a polygon: ¾ Choose Polygon from the Draw menu. To draw an orthogonal polygon: ¾ Choose Polygon from the Draw menu. To draw a rectangle or ellipse: ¾ Choose Rectangle or Ellipse from the Draw menu.
To draw a square or circle: ¾ Choose Rectangle or Ellipse from the Draw menu. Pages can be individually printed or copied to the clipboard see Chapter 3, Managing PFD Files.
To add a page: ¾ Choose Page from the Draw menu. Figure Pages To change the page setup options: ¾ Double-click anywhere along the page border. This brings up the Page Setup window. After you have set up a page, you can resize it or make this page one cell in a grid of pages. To resize the page: ¾ Click near the page outline to highlight the page. To make a grid of pages: ¾ Select the page by clicking near the page outline. The page you started with will be the upper left cell of the grid.
The grid can be resized and moved on the PFD in the same manner as a single page. In addition, this chapter describes how to edit and align text.
Selecting Objects or Groups of Objects You can select a single object, multiple noncontiguous objects, or a group of objects.
Objects or groups of objects include units, streams and drawn objects. All manipulations delete, rotate, move are performed on selected objects. Selecting Multiple Objects You can select a set of noncontiguous objects. To select a set of individual objects: ¾ Click on the first object. For example, although five objects appear to be selected as part of this set Figure , when you move the selection, the fourth and fifth objects the valve and the compressor do not move with the set Figure Figure Move Multiple Objects Selecting a Group of Objects You can gather a group of contiguous objects by dragging a selection rectangle around them.
To select a contiguous group of objects: ¾ Click on an unoccupied area of the PFD adjacent to one of the items you want to select and begin dragging the cursor by moving your mouse. Once selected, you can then move or delete the entire selection.
To select all objects on the flowsheet: ¾ Choose Select All from the Edit menu. Deselecting Objects If you change your mind after selecting objects, you can reverse any selection. To deselect or unselect all objects in the layout, do one of the following: ¾ Choose Select None from the Edit menu. Resizing an Object You can change the height, width, or overall size of any object or a group of objects on your flowsheet.
Changing the Size of a Selected Object When changing the width of a group of objects, you change the absolute distance between the objects and maintain the relative distance. To change the size of an object: ¾ Click and drag the cursor until the object is the desired size.
They do not resize when you change the size of the column. To restore an icon to its original size: ¾ Choose Restore Icon Size from the Edit menu. You can also click the right mouse button on a selected icon, and then choose Restore Icon Size from the Icon pop-up menu. Rearranging Objects or Groups of Objects You can move objects to a different area of the flowsheet. You can also rotate or flip a unit icon so it fits into the flow of your diagram. To move a selected object: ¾ Click and drag the object or group of objects to a new position.
Setting Move Tolerance Move Tolerance controls the incremental distance for any object you move. The default is 5 pixels. To change move tolerance: ¾ Choose Drawing Defaults from the Options menu, then General. The General Drawing Defaults window appears. Rotating Selected Objects You can rotate a selected object s on its axis by 90, or degrees. To rotate a selected object: ¾ Choose Rotate from the Edit menu.
The Rotate degrees cascade menu appears to the right of the Edit menu. Rotating an Icon You can also click the right mouse button on a unit icon, then choose Rotate from the Pop-up Unit menu to display the rotation degrees. Flipping Selected Objects You can flip a selected object s horizontally or vertically to better orient the object s relative to other objects of the diagram.
The Flip options menu appears to the right of the Edit menu. Flipping an Icon You can also click the right mouse button on a unit icon, then choose Flip from the Pop-up Unit menu to display the flip options.
Editing Text You can change the text, size and or rotation of any text object you placed on the PFD main window. To edit text: ¾ Double-click on the text object you want to change. The Draw Text window appears. Aligning Text You can align text in two or more text boxes to the left, right or center of the box they are drawn in.
The align menu pop-up appears to the right of the Edit menu. see a thumbnail of the entire flowsheet and use a bounding box in the thumbnail to move the visible area. Scrolling the PFD You can scroll the PFD left, right, up, or down using the horizontal and vertical Scroll Bars.
Both bars enable you to scroll in small or large increments or to scroll to a general location. Setting Scrolling Increments You can change the actual value for the scroll increments by altering the Pan Increment value on the General Drawing Defaults window.
To zoom in or out, do one of the following: ¾ Click on the toolbar. To zoom in on a specific area of the flowsheet: ¾ Click on the toolbar or choose Zoom Area from the View menu. Zooming to Show the Full Flowsheet You can quickly display the entire flowsheet in the PFD. To use zoom to show the full flowsheet, do one of the following: ¾ Click on the toolbar. The default small zoom increment is 5 pixels and the default large zoom increment is 20 pixels.
Opening Multiple Viewport Windows You can open multiple viewports of a single simulation problem to display different views of the flowsheet. To open an additional viewport of the current simulation problem, do one of the following: ¾ Click Multiple Viewports on the toolbar or choose New View on the Window menu. To redraw the diagram, do one of the following: ¾ Click on the toolbar. A bounding box identifies the area of the flowsheet currently visible in the PFD main window. You move the bounding box or change its size to change how much or what portion of the flowsheet you see in the PFD.
From the View menu, you can pan in large or small increments: up, down, left, or right. You can change the settings for the pan increment in the General Drawing Defaults window. Displaying and Hiding the Pan View Window To display the Pan View window: ¾ Click on the toolbar or choose Pan View from the Window menu. The flowsheet in the PFD view changes to match the area encompassed by the bounding box. Moving the Bounding Box To move the bounding box: ¾ Click the mouse inside the box.
The area enclosed fills the PFD. Note: For a large flowsheet, use the Pan View window to quickly switch from one area of the flowsheet to another. Changing the Size of the Bounding Box To change the size of the bounding box: ¾ Click and drag the bounding box border handle to enlarge or reduce the bounding box. Panning - Using the Menu Options You can pan the image in the PFD up, down, left, or right using the panning options on the Zoom menu.
To pan the image a large or small amount: ¾ Choose Large Pan or Small Pan from the View menu. The pop-up menu appears. The default small pan increment is 5 pixels and the default large pan increment is 20 pixels. There are a number of libraries from which you can extract sets of data. This chapter provides an introduction to these data entry windows. Defining the Simulation You can use the data entry window buttons on the toolbar or the options on the Input menu to define the scope of the current simulation.
Defining the scope of the simulation involves: ¾ Defining the simulation problem ¾ Selecting the components for the simulation ¾ Setting the thermodynamic methods for the simulation Note: Chapter 8, Specifying Component, Thermodynamic and Stream Data and Chapter 9, Unit Operations and Utility Modules provide explicit details on the use of the data entry windows introduced in this chapter. Button Menu Item Description Problem Description Enables you to describe the current simulation and relate it to a specific project.
Units of Measure Enables you to set units of measure specific to this simulation. Thermodynamic Data Enables you to select thermodynamic methods for the current simulation.
Assay Enables you to modify TBP Cutpoints and Characterization characterization options for the generation of pseudocomponents from Assay streams. Procedure Data Enables you to supply FORTRAN code for kinetic reaction rate calculations without the need for compilation and linking. Case Study Allows you to perform studies on a base Specification case solution by altering parameters selectively and rerunning.
Reaction Data Enables you to define reactions and provide heat of reaction, equilibrium, or kinetic data for reaction sets. Calculation Sequence Enables you to specify a user-defined calculation sequence. Recycle Convergence Enables you to specify user-defined recycle convergence and acceleration options. To select components for use in this simulation: ¾ Click on the toolbar or choose Component Selection on the Input menu. The Component Selection window appears. Figure Component Selection ¾ Select a component from the available lists or type the name of the component.
Each component you select appears in the List of Selected Components box on the right side of the window. To modify component properties: ¾ Click on the toolbar or choose Component Properties from the Input menu. The Component Property Modification window appears.
To set thermodynamic calculation methods for this simulation: ¾ Click on the toolbar or choose Thermodynamic Data on the Input menu. Figure Thermodynamic Data You can specify a predefined system of thermodynamic calculation methods. To select assay data for this simulation: ¾ Click on the toolbar or choose Assay Characterization on the Input menu.
You can modify the primary set or define a new cutpoint set or set characterization options. To specify reaction data sets for this simulation: ¾ Click on the toolbar or choose Reaction Data on the Input menu.
You are able to supply FORTRAN code for the reaction rate calculations without the need for compilation and linking. To select procedure data for this simulation: ¾ Click on the toolbar or choose Procedure Data on the Input menu. To select case study data for this simulation: ¾ Click on the toolbar or choose Case Study Data on the Input menu. Use this option to specify the method to determine this calculation sequence for the current problem.
To select calculation sequence for this simulation: ¾ Click on the toolbar or choose Calculation Sequence from the Input menu. Note: This window is not available if you select the SIMSCI method for Calculation Sequencing, since the loops are determined automatically by this method. To select recycle convergence for this simulation: ¾ Click on the toolbar or choose Recycle Convergence on the Input menu. Most main data entry windows provide Help, Overview, and Status buttons that enable you to access different levels of help text.
In addition, some main data entry windows and some subordinate windows provide UOM, Define and Range buttons. Grayed buttons indicate that the feature is currently unavailable. Button Description Displays context-sensitive help for the active data entry field, or for the window itself if there is no active field. Displays the main help window for the data entry window.
Displays the results of the data consistency checks performed for the main window after you choose OK. Selects a units of measure set for the selected data entry field. References one stream or unit parameter value to another stream or unit parameter. Displays the valid range of values for the active data entry field.
Displays the notes, associated with the unit. There may be several rows of related data entries. X-Y Grids are a special type of grid that are used to supply data for relational curves. The two-grid columns contain an independent variable x and one related dependent variable y.
The Column Tray Hydraulics window shown below is an example of a grid. Notice that it provides columns for the starting tray number, ending tray number, calculation type, and entry of tray data.
Each row has a numbered click button which is used to select the row for toolbar actions. For this example, several types of data entry devices are used in the grid. The starting and ending tray numbers are integer edit fields, the calculation type is a drop-down list box, and the entry of tray data is a click button, which brings up the Column Tray Sizing window or Column Tray Rating window, depending on the calculation type that was selected. Figure Column Tray Hydraulics Window Observe that four rows are provided in the initial grid corresponding to five sections in the column.
This may be expanded by clicking a row number button and then clicking the Insert button. A row will be added below the selected row. When the number of rows exceeds five, a scroll bar appears at the right side of the grid to provide access to the rows not displayed. To deselect a row, click the number button of the previously selected row, or select a different row. To clear data entries from a row, click the row number button and then click Reset.
To remove a row, click the row number button and the Cut button. Figure Compressor Outlet Pressure Performance Window Notice that two columns are used for the pressure curve. The first column is the volumetric feed rate and the second column is the corresponding outlet pressure from the compressor. Four individual entries or cells corresponding to two rows in the table are marked with a red border as mandatory input.
Optionally, more pairs of information may be provided. The initial grid displays four pairs of cells. Note that each row in the grid has a numbered click button which may be used to select the row. The initial table may be expanded with the Insert button on the toolbar as described in the previous example.
When the number of rows in the X-Y grid exceeds four, a scroll bar appears to provide access to rows not displayed. A row may be deleted from the grid by clicking its number button and then clicking Cut. To copy a row, first click its number button and then click Copy. The row is copied into the clipboard. Next, click the row number button for the row which will be just below the copied row.
Complete the copy by clicking Paste to insert a copy of the row from the clipboard. Numeric values, mathematical operators, stream or unit names, or various options may be supplied as linked text. Linked text may serve to access another data entry device.
The Feedback Controller data entry window containing linked text is shown in Figure Figure Feedback Controller Main Data Entry Window - Initial Display Linked text is used on this window to define the Specification and Variable. Note that the Parameter and value link texts are red, denoting that you must click these strings and provide data entries.
The text string the default tolerance is green, denoting a default value. Optionally, a different tolerance may be provided by clicking the afore-mentioned text string to open the Specification Tolerance window, where the appropriate radio button may be clicked to select a new tolerance type, i. Click OK to return to the Feedback Controller window. Notice that the relative tolerance text string becomes blue indicating a user-supplied value. When the value text string is clicked, a floating point entry field for the specification value is displayed with a red border signifying mandatory input.
The value you supply is now displayed in blue numbers instead of the value text string. The unit or stream identifier and the parameter for the specification are now displayed in blue, replacing the Parameter text string. In many cases, the default values are satisfactory and it may not be necessary for you to visit these sections. No limit is set on the number of components which may be used for any problem.
Furthermore, component data may originate from a variety of sources such as SIMSCI databanks, user-prepared databanks, user-defined components, and components derived from petroleum assay data for feed streams. Moreover, you may stipulate a preferential search order when multiple databanks are used. The SIMSCI databanks, SIMSCI and PROCESS, contain more than components and are adequate for nearly all simulation models.
If you know the library access name for a component, you may enter it directly into the data entry field. A large number of component families are provided to speed the search. A brief description is given below: Most Commonly Used: Approximately components representing all of the pure components commonly encountered in natural gas and petroleum processing.
Hydrocarbon Lightends: Light gases commonly reported on analysis for oil refinery streams. All Components: Every component in the SIMSCI and PROCESS databanks. Families of Specific Chemical Type: Twenty families in alphabetical order: Acids Additional Electrolyte Components Alcohols Aldehydes Amides Amines Aromatic Hydrocarbons Elements Esters Ethers Halogenated Derivatives Ketones Miscellaneous Naphthenic Hydrocarbons Other Nitrogen Derivatives Paraffinic Hydrocarbons Salts and Minerals Silicon Derivatives Sulfur Derivatives Unsaturated Hydrocarbons For all families listed above, except for Hydrocarbon Lightends, you may define specific search criteria by selecting radio buttons and entering a search string.
As components are located, transfer them to the Additions to Component List box. When you have located all the components, click OK to return to the Component Selection main window and to transfer the components to the List of Selected Components. The priority order for databanks may be defined by pushing the Databank Hierarchy button on the Component Selection main window to access the Component Selection — Databank Search Order window.
This window initially displays the default search order and may be modified to search the databanks in any order. Components are always selected from the first databank in the search order in which they appear.
Note: The newly added libraries and databank names in TDM can be recognized in this dialog box by Library Name:Databank Name. Note: At this point, you have only entered the name of the user-defined component in the database. Next, you must supply the properties for the component by the steps described below in Modifying Component Properties.
Defining Petroleum PETRO Components Define PETRO components by clicking Petroleum… on the Component Selection main window to access the Component Selection — Petroleum Components window. You may define any number of PETRO components in a single visit to this window by using the tabular input provided.
You must supply at least two of the three correlating properties, normal boiling point, standard liquid density, and molecular weight for each component. All necessary physical and thermodynamic properties are computed from the three correlating properties.
Molecular weight is the most difficult property to predict accurately from generalized correlations and should be supplied when possible, for the most accurate characterization for a PETRO component.
Note: It is not possible to enter data for assay pseudocomponents which are based on stream assay information with this window. You may specify stream properties, the particle size distribution, and the particle properties.
Ensure that the components that may be solid have the solid phase enabled. If the flowsheet will include unit operations that require particle size distributions e. In the like-named window, click Particle Size Distribution… to open the Particle Size Distribution for Solids window.
Enter PSD cutpoints for all relevant solid components. Particle size grades are bounded by the cutpoints that are entered here.
Grades will not be created on the open ends of the first and last cutpoints i. To change the units of measure for the particle size distribution, click in any of the Distribution Ranges entry fields to enable the UOM button in the toolbar at the top of the window. To delete a component: ¾ Highlight the name of component in the List of Selected Components.
To rename a component for printout purposes: ¾ Highlight the component. Modifying Component Properties You can modify properties for any component entered through the Component Selection main data entry window via the Component Property window.
from the menu bar or click on the main toolbar. The Component Properties window is the master navigation point for changing all component properties. Note: Component properties cannot be defined before the component names have been entered. There are three methods available for component property modification: Method 1: Specifying Fixed Properties Click Fixed… to open the Components Properties-Fixed Properties window.
Here, you can modify fixed component properties such as molecular weight, critical temperature and NBP. With the exception of assay components, all components can be modified via this window.
For those properties having UOMs, all data is displayed with the UOMs of the current problem. Starting from this window, use the appropriate button to modify other properties: ¾ Click Critical Properties… to specify critical temperature, critical pressure, critical volume and critical compressibility factor. In this entry, reference phase designation is a required input. The reference phase can be vapor, liquid or solid.
Vapor phase is the default. Method 2: Specifying Temperature-dependent Properties You may enter or override default data for properties that change with temperature, such as density and viscosity, for the vapor, liquid or solid phases of the pure components in your simulation.
You may supply new data in the form of tables or as correlation coefficients of one of 29 different equation types. Click Temperature Dependent to open the Component Properties —Temperature Dependent Properties window.
All the library and user-defined components from the current problem are displayed. To enter or modify data for a property of a component, click on the corresponding push button for that component. For properties that may apply to more than one phase, you will first be required to select the phase for which you are to supply data in the Component Properties — Phase window, ¾ Click VP to enter or modify liquid or solid vapor pressure data ¾ Click H to enter or modify vapor, liquid or solid enthalpy data ¾ Click ΔΗν to enter or modify latent heat data Click Cp to enter or modify solid heat capacity data ¾ ¾ Click ρ to enter or modify liquid or solid density data ¾ Click μ to enter or modify vapor or liquid viscosity data ¾ Click κ to enter or modify vapor, liquid or solid conductivity data ¾ Click σ to enter or modify liquid surface tension data In the Component Properties - Data Source Selection window, choose the method of data entry.
You may enter data either in tabular form or as coefficients for one of as many as 29 equations. If the form of the equation is logarithmic, you may select the base of the logarithm. You may change the units of the equation and may impose maximum and minimum temperatures of applicability. If you choose an equation that is not standard, a message to that effect appears, and the border of the drop-down list box will be yellow.
If you choose the Tabular Data option, the Component Properties —Tabular Data window appears. You must enter at least one data pair. In the keyword input file, the newly added libraries and databank names in TDM can be recognized by Library Name:Databank Name.
In Component Selection and Thermodynamic Data - Databank search order dialog box, the newly added and existing libraries and databank names in TDM can be viewed. Users can select and add the libraries for the current simulation.
Note: Use Thermo Data Manager User guide for detailed explanation on its functionalities. Method 3: Specifying Fill From Structure The Fill from Structure button opens the Components Properties — Fill from Structure window. The Available Components list on the left side contains library components to be filled from structure to the like-named list on the right.
Click ΟΚ and user-defined components from the current problem. You may add or remove to have the properties of the selected components filled from structure. Joback significantly expanded the work of Lyderson in this area providing a group contribution method for the prediction of critical properties, boiling point, freezing point, ideal gas capacity, enthalpy and Gibbs heat of formation. Joback used a4 large database of components to statistically determine group parameters for 42 different functional groups.
SIMSCI has extended this work to include several missing parameters. To complete the Fill from Structure procedure, click UNIFAC Structures… on the Component Properties window to display the like-named window. A UNIFAC Structure entry is mandatory for all components for which Fill from Structure has been requested.
Click UNIFAC Structures… adjacent to the component of interest to open the Define UNIFAC Structure window where you may choose from families of components or from the UNIFAC group number directly. These stocks must be characterized by pseudocomponents for which the necessary physical and thermodynamic properties have been estimated.
The normal boiling point for a pseudocomponent is defined as the weighted average temperature of its cutpoint range. The TBP distillation must often be derived from another type of laboratory distillation, using a conversion procedure. Estimated values for the standard liquid gravity and molecular weight for each pseudocomponent are also needed for the characterization process.
The standard liquid gravity for each pseudocomponent is derived from the gravity curve for the stream, in similar fashion to the normal boiling point. The gravity curve for the stream is often not available, and it must be estimated, based on the average stream gravity and the distillation curve.
The molecular weight curve is seldom available, and the molecular weight for each pseudocomponent is usually predicted from its normal boiling point and standard liquid gravity. All other required physical and thermodynamic properties may be estimated from the normal boiling point, standard liquid gravity, and molecular weight.
The first step involves the definition of the cutpoint ranges and selection of the characterization options used in development of the pseudo components. Characterization options include distillation curve fitting and conversion methods, gravity curve generation procedure, methods for prediction of molecular weight, and methods for estimation of critical properties and ideal gas enthalpies.
The properties for all pseudocomponents derived from the same cutpoint set are averaged, based on the stream flows, to develop a common set of blend components.
This technique provides reasonable results when the streams have similar chemical natures. For example, all of the assay specifying streams are products from the crude distillation unit. For this reason, you are allowed to define additional cutpoint sets. For example, an additional cutpoint set may be defined to represent the products from an FCC reactor. Note that it is not necessary or desirable to define a separate cutpoint set for each assay stream. Similar streams may be grouped by using the same cutpoint set without a serious loss of accuracy.
This also minimizes the number of components in the simulation, keeping calculation times smaller. This step is accomplished in the setup of initial feed streams and is discussed in the Stream Data section of this chapter.
TBP Cutpoint Sets TBP cutpoint sets are defined in the Assay Cutpoints and Characterization main data entry window. This set has the following cutpoint definitions: Cutpoint Range, Deg F Cutpoint Range, Deg C No of Cuts - 38 - 28 - - 8 - - 4 The default cutpoint ranges are usually reasonable for crude oil problems.
They may be modified in the Assay Data Primary TBP Cutpoints Definition window which is accessed by clicking Modify on the Assay Cutpoints and Characterization main data entry window.
A convenient tabular form is provided for editing of the primary cutpoint set. Additional or Secondary cutpoint sets may be added to the problem by clicking Define New Cutpoint Set on the Assay Cutpoints and Characterization main data entry window to access the Assay Data Secondary Set of TBP Cuts. A cutpoint set name is supplied on this window and a tabular entry form is provided for definition of the cutpoints.
Highlighted secondary cutpoint sets in the Assay Cutpoints and Characterization main data entry window may be deleted by clicking Delete This action removes the secondary cutpoint set from the problem. The Default Cutpoint Set is used for all streams for which a cutpoint set is not specified. After one or more Secondary cutpoint sets have been defined, the default cutpoint set may be changed via the drop-down list box on the Assay Cutpoints and Characterization main data entry window.
A footnote in Microsoft's submission opens in new tab to the UK's Competition and Markets Authority CMA has let slip the reason behind Call of Duty's absence from the Xbox Game Pass library: Sony and Activision Blizzard have a deal that restricts the games' presence on the service.
The footnote appears in a section detailing the potential benefits to consumers from Microsoft's point of view of the Activision Blizzard catalogue coming to Game Pass. What existing contractual obligations are those? Why, ones like the "agreement between Activision Blizzard and Sony," that places "restrictions on the ability of Activision Blizzard to place COD titles on Game Pass for a number of years".
It was apparently these kinds of agreements that Xbox's Phil Spencer had in mind opens in new tab when he spoke to Sony bosses in January and confirmed Microsoft's "intent to honor all existing agreements upon acquisition of Activision Blizzard". Unfortunately, the footnote ends there, so there's not much in the way of detail about what these restrictions are or how long they'd remain in effect in a potential post-acquisition world.
Given COD's continued non-appearance on Game Pass, you've got to imagine the restrictions are fairly significant if they're not an outright block on COD coming to the service. Either way, the simple fact that Microsoft is apparently willing to maintain any restrictions on its own ability to put first-party games on Game Pass is rather remarkable, given that making Game Pass more appealing is one of the reasons for its acquisition spree.
The irony of Sony making deals like this one while fretting about COD's future on PlayStation probably isn't lost on Microsoft's lawyers, which is no doubt part of why they brought it up to the CMA. While it's absolutely reasonable to worry about a world in which more and more properties are concentrated in the hands of singular, giant megacorps, it does look a bit odd if you're complaining about losing access to games while stopping them from joining competing services.
We'll find out if the CMA agrees when it completes its in-depth, "Phase 2" investigation opens in new tab into the Activision Blizzard acquisition, which is some way off yet. For now, we'll have to content ourselves with poring over these kinds of corporate submissions for more interesting tidbits like this one.
So far, we've already learned that Microsoft privately has a gloomy forecast for the future of cloud gaming opens in new tab , and that the company thinks Sony shouldn't worry so much since, hey, future COD games might be as underwhelming as Vanguard opens in new tab. Who knows what we'll learn next? Sign up to get the best content of the week, and great gaming deals, as picked by the editors. One of Josh's first memories is of playing Quake 2 on the family computer when he was much too young to be doing that, and he's been irreparably game-brained ever since.
His writing has been featured in Vice, Fanbyte, and the Financial Times. He'll play pretty much anything, and has written far too much on everything from visual novels to Assassin's Creed.
His most profound loves are for CRPGs, immersive sims, and any game whose ambition outstrips its budget. He thinks you're all far too mean about Deus Ex: Invisible War. Open menu Close menu PC Gamer PC Gamer THE GLOBAL AUTHORITY ON PC GAMES. opens in new tab opens in new tab opens in new tab opens in new tab opens in new tab opens in new tab.
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